are an ancient type of plant, with fossils of ferns being dated
back over three hundred and sixty million years ago. As they
are known today, ferns are leafy, non-flowering plants that
grow in very moist areas. Like all other types of plants, ferns
have several species, which have varying growing conditions.
Ferns are extremely successful niche plants, meaning that they
are well adapted to specific environmental conditions.
are vascular plants, meaning that they have developed internal
vein structures that aid in the flow of nutrients and water
to the outer parts of the plant. Most vascular plants, such
as flowers and leafy trees, grow immediately from the seed
to their adult form. Ferns, on the other hand, reproduce using
spores that grow into an intermediate stage referred to as
reproductive cycle of ferns is very complicated and needs
specific conditions to be completed. First and most importantly,
there must be liquid water. This is so that when the gametophyte
is grown out of a spore, the sperm from one side of the gametophyte
can swim to the eggs on the other side. Once fertilization
has occurred, the fern is nurtured inside the gametophyte
and grows into the adult plant.
To grow properly, ferns need good moisture, both in the air
and in the soil. Ferns also require protection from the wind,
as they are very delicate plants. Ferns require sufficient
light for photosynthesis, but need protection from too much
direct sunlight, as this will dry out the plant. It is important
to maintain all of these factors regularly, as ferns are very
reliant on consistent condition to both grow and reproduce.